# Mathematics, B.S.

## Mission

A Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics provides a strong foundational core for students who wish to pursue graduate studies in pure or applied mathematics; to pursue a career in applied mathematics (e.g., statistics, computer science, operations research, and actuarial mathematics) immediately after obtaining a B.S.; or to teach mathematics in middle school and high school. The courses taken to satisfy the degree requirements are taught viewing mathematics as part of God's creation, and there is a concentrated effort to integrate faith and learning.

## Degree Program

A Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics is offered upon completion of the University baccalaureate and the mathematics major in one of the concentrations. All mathematics concentrations must include 24 upper-division credits.

## Program Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of the Bachelor of Science in Mathematics, students will be able to:

- Think critically, solve problems, and prove theorems in the abstract (ULO 1).
- Apply mathematical theory, problem solve, and use math-related technology in real-world contexts (ULO 1).
- Communicate mathematical ideas effectively, both verbally and in writing (ULO 1).
- Articulate the implications of a biblical worldview concerning mathematics (ULO 2 and 3).

Each Program Learning Outcome (PLO) listed above references at least one of the University Learning Outcomes (ULO 1, 2, 3), which may be found in the General Information section of this catalog.

## Curriculum Requirements

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Program-Specific Core Curriculum Courses | ||

The Core Curriculum requirement for a foreign language for those following a mathematics major may be met by two years of high school language or the first 4 credits of a college language. | ||

Mathematics majors must fulfill their Biblical Studies integration seminar requirement by taking one of the sections of BBST 465 Integration Seminar: God and Math. | ||

Program Courses | ||

Students earning a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics must complete the mathematics program courses and one of the concentrations. | ||

MATH 105 | Calculus I | 4 |

MATH 106 | Calculus II | 4 |

MATH 204 | Introduction to Abstract Math | 3 |

MATH 205 | Calculus III | 4 |

MATH 291 | Linear Algebra | 3 |

MATH 305 | Introduction to Real Analysis I | 3 |

MATH 315 | Abstract Algebra I | 3 |

MATH 370 | Readings in Mathematics ^{1} | 2 |

CSCI 105 | Introduction to Computer Science | 3 |

Students who plan to pursue graduate studies should take at least two of the following courses regardless of the area of concentration: | ||

Introduction to Real Analysis II | ||

Abstract Algebra II | ||

Research Seminar | ||

Total Credits | 29 |

^{1} | MATH 370 must be taken twice (2 credits total). |

## Concentrations

### Actuarial Science (62 Credits)

Students who wish to pursue actuarial science, business analytics, or related fields should choose this concentration.

In addition to the program courses above, this concentration must complete the following:

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Concentration Courses | ||

BUSN 201 | Principles of Macroeconomics | 3 |

BUSN 202 | Principles of Microeconomics | 3 |

BUSN 211 | Principles of Accounting I | 3 |

BUSN 212 | Principles of Accounting II | 3 |

BUSN 370 | Business Finance | 3 |

MATH 190 | Business Statistics | 3 |

MATH 331 | Probability | 3 |

MATH 332 | Mathematical Statistics | 3 |

MATH 333 | Operations Research | 3 |

MATH 335 | Ordinary Differential Equations | 3 |

Select one course (3 credits) at the 300 or 400 level in Math | 3 | |

Total Credits | 33 |

### Applied Mathematics (47 Credits)

Students who are interested in preparing for careers in business or industry should choose this concentration. Courses introduce a variety of areas of applied mathematics.

In addition to the program courses above, this concentration must complete the following.

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Concentration Courses | ||

MATH 321 | Numerical Analysis | 3 |

MATH 331 | Probability | 3 |

MATH 332 | Mathematical Statistics | 3 |

MATH 333 | Operations Research | 3 |

MATH 335 | Ordinary Differential Equations | 3 |

or MATH 440 | Complex Variables | |

Select one course at the 300 or 400 level in Math | 3 | |

Total Credits | 18 |

### Computer Science (53 Credits)

This concentration allows a mathematics major the opportunity to focus on the more mathematical aspects of computer science.

In addition to the program courses above, this concentration must complete the following.

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Concentration Courses | ||

Select at least two courses from the following: | 6 | |

Numerical Analysis | ||

Probability | ||

Mathematical Statistics | ||

Operations Research | ||

The following courses are also required: | ||

CSCI 106 | Data Structures | 3 |

CSCI 220 | Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming | 3 |

CSCI 400 | Theory of Algorithms | 3 |

Select three courses at the 300 or 400 level in Math or Computer Science | 9 | |

Total Credits | 24 |

### Pure Mathematics (47 Credits)

This concentration allows the student flexibility in the selection of upper-division courses. A faculty advisor will aid the student in making these choices. Students planning to pursue mathematics in graduate school will find this concentration particularly appropriate.

In addition to the program courses above, this concentration must complete the following:

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Concentration Courses | ||

MATH 331 | Probability | 3 |

Select 5 courses at the 300 or 400 level in Math | 15 | |

Total Credits | 18 |

### Statistics and Data Science (47 credits)

The Statistics and Data Science concentration is designed to equip students to obtain valid data and use it to answer the questions they face on the job and in the world, with a biblical worldview.

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Concentration Courses | ||

MATH 318 | Biostatistics | 3 |

MATH 331 | Probability | 3 |

MATH 332 | Mathematical Statistics | 3 |

MATH 380 | Statistical Consulting Practicum | 3 |

or MATH 319 | Statistics II | |

CSCI 106 | Data Structures | 3 |

Statistics and Data Science Capstone ^{1} | ||

Select one of the following courses: | 3 | |

Database Management | ||

Topics in Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence) | ||

Advanced Business Analytics | ||

Statistics II ^{2} | ||

Total Credits | 18 |

^{1} | MATH 470 is to be taken in place of one of the sections of MATH 370, 2 credits of which are required for the Math major. |

^{2} | If not taken above as an alternate to MATH 380. |

**Mathematics: Secondary Instruction**

Students who wish to prepare to teach mathematics at the secondary level should select this concentration to work toward a preliminary single-subject credential.

The Professional Teacher Preparation Program leading to a California Teaching Credential at Biola University is subject to change in response to new legislation. Please see a credential analyst in the School of Education for current information on completing the requirements for a teaching credential. Students must consult with both their major advisor and a School of Education advisor.

In addition to the program courses above, this concentration must complete the following.

Code | Title | Credits |
---|---|---|

Concentration-Specific Core Curriculum Course | ||

Behavioral Science | ||

Introduction to Psychology | ||

Concentration Courses | ||

MATH 331 | Probability | 3 |

MATH 341 | Classical Geometry | 3 |

MATH 415 | Number Theory and the History of Mathematics | 3 |

MATH 318 | Biostatistics | 3 |

or MATH 332 | Mathematical Statistics | |

Select two courses at the 300 or 400 level in Math | 6 | |

Education Courses | ||

LEDU 301 | Introduction to Teaching | 3 |

LEDU 330 | Psychological Foundations of Education | 3 |

LEDU 341 | Methods of Teaching Linguistically Diverse Students | 3 |

LEDU 425 | Secondary Content Area Reading | 3 |

LEDU 433 | Single Subject Pedagogy | 2 |

LEDU 438 | Secondary Curriculum, Differentiation, and Assessment | 3 |

Student teaching (12 credits) may be completed at the graduate level and is not required for undergraduate graduation: | ||

Secondary Student Teaching I | ||

Secondary Student Teaching II | ||

Total Credits | 35 |

**NOTE**: The course sequence table is designed by the major department and is one way that the classes will work out properly in sequence for your major. However, there are alternative or flexible ways to rotate some of the classes within the same year/level and sometimes between year levels. Please contact your major department advisor to discuss flexible alternatives in scheduling the sequence of your classes.

Taking coursework during the summer session may also be an option to accelerate your degree path.

See Core Curriculum Program section for a list of approved Core Curriculum courses.

**Actuarial Science****Applied Mathematics****Computer Science****Pure Mathematics****Statistics and Data Science****Mathematics: Secondary Instruction**

**Mathematics, B.S. Actuarial Science (MACT)**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 103 or 165 | 3 | BBST 103 or 165 | 3 |

CSCI 105 | 3 | MATH 106 | 4 |

MATH 105 | 4 | MATH 204 | 3 |

MATH 190 | 3 | Foreign Language (see Core Curriculum) | 4 |

KNES 107 | 1 | ENGL 100 or 112 | 3 |

GNST 102 | 1 | ||

15 | 17 | ||

Total Credits 32 |

Second Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 209 or 210 | 3 | BBST 209 or 210 | 3 |

MATH 205 | 4 | BBST 251 | 3 |

MATH 291 | 3 | MATH 315 | 3 |

BUSN 201 | 3 | BUSN 202 | 3 |

Fine Arts (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

16 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 31 |

Third Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 365 | 3 | BBST 354 | 3 |

BUSN 370 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 370 | 1 | MATH 332 or 333 | 3 |

MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 | MATH 370 | 1 |

BUSN 211 | 3 | BUSN 212 | 3 |

ENGL 313 | 3 | Behavioral Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Writing Competency Requirement | Graduation Petition due in Registrar's Office | ||

16 | 16 | ||

Total Credits 32 |

Fourth Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 300/400 Bible Elective | 3 | BBST 465 | 3 |

MATH 331 | 3 | BBST 306, 316, or 326 | 3 |

Communication (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | MATH 333 | 3 |

Literature (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | MATH 335 | 3 |

Philosophy (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | HIST 200, 201, or POSC 225 | 3 |

KNES Activity (see Core Curriculum) | 1 | ||

16 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 31 |

**Mathematics, B.S. Applied Mathematics**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 103 or 165 | 3 | BBST 103 or 165 | 3 |

CSCI 105 | 3 | MATH 106 | 4 |

MATH 105 | 4 | MATH 204 | 3 |

ENGL 100 or 112 | 3 | Foreign Language (see Core Curriculum) | 4 |

GNST 102 | 1 | KNES 107 | 1 |

14 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 29 |

Second Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 209 or 210 | 3 | BBST 209 or 210 | 3 |

BBST 251 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 205 | 4 | Communication (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

MATH 291 | 3 | Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Literature (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | General Elective | 3 |

16 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 31 |

Third Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 365 | 3 | BBST 354 | 3 |

MATH 331 | 3 | MATH 315 | 3 |

MATH 370 | 1 | MATH 332 | 3 |

MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 | MATH 370 | 1 |

Behavioral Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | MATH 335 or 440 | 3 |

ENGL 313 | 3 | KNES Activity (see Core Curriculum) | 1 |

Writing Competency Requirement | Graduation Petition due in Registrar's Office | ||

16 | 14 | ||

Total Credits 30 |

Fourth Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 300/400 Bible Elective | 3 | BBST 465 | 3 |

MATH 321 | 3 | BBST 306, 316, or 326 | 3 |

Fine Arts (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | MATH 333 | 3 |

Philosophy (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | HIST 200, 201, or POSC 225 | 3 |

General Elective | 3 | General Elective | 3 |

15 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 30 |

**Mathematics, B.S. Computer Science**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 103 or 165 | 3 | BBST 103 or 165 | 3 |

CSCI 105 | 3 | CSCI 106 | 3 |

MATH 105 | 4 | MATH 106 | 4 |

ENGL 100 or 112 | 3 | MATH 204 | 3 |

GNST 102 | 1 | KNES 107 | 1 |

14 | 14 | ||

Total Credits 28 |

Second Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 209 or 210 | 3 | BBST 209 or 210 | 3 |

BBST 251 | 3 | CSCI 220 | 3 |

MATH 205 | 4 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 291 | 3 | Communication (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Foreign Language (see Core Curriculum) | 4 | Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

17 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 32 |

Third Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 365 | 3 | BBST 354 | 3 |

CSCI 400 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 370 | 1 | MATH 370 | 1 |

MATH/CSCI Elective (upper-division) | 3 | MATH/CSCI Elective (upper-division) | 3 |

Behavioral Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | KNES Activity (see Core Curriculum) | 1 |

Literature (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | General Elective | 3 |

Writing Competency Requirement | Graduation Petition due in Registrar's Office | ||

16 | 14 | ||

Total Credits 30 |

Fourth Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 300/400 Bible Elective | 3 | BBST 465 | 3 |

MATH 321, 331, 332, or 333^{1} | 3 | BBST 306, 316, or 326 | 3 |

ENGL 313 | 3 | MATH 321, 331, 332, or 333^{1} | 3 |

Fine Arts (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | MATH/CSCI Elective (upper-division) | 3 |

Philosophy (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | HIST 200, 200, or POSC 225 | 3 |

15 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 30 |

^{1} | Select at least two of MATH 321, 331, 332, 333. |

**Mathematics, B.S. Pure Mathematics**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 103 or 165 | 3 | BBST 103 or 165 | 3 |

CSCI 105 | 3 | MATH 106 | 4 |

MATH 105 | 4 | MATH 204 | 3 |

ENGL 100 or 112 | 3 | Foreign Language (see Core Curriculum) | 4 |

GNST 102 | 1 | KNES 107 | 1 |

14 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 29 |

Second Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 209 or 210 | 3 | BBST 209 or 210 | 3 |

BBST 251 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 205 | 4 | Communication (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

MATH 291 | 3 | Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

General Elective | 3 | General Elective | 3 |

16 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 31 |

Third Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 365 | 3 | BBST 354 | 3 |

MATH 370 | 1 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 331 | 3 | MATH 370 | 1 |

MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 | MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 |

Behavioral Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | Literature (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

General Elective | 3 | KNES Activity (see Core Curriculum) | 1 |

Writing Competency Requirement | Graduation Petition due iin Registrar's Office | ||

16 | 14 | ||

Total Credits 30 |

Fourth Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 300/400 Bible Elective | 3 | BBST 465 | 3 |

MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 | BBST 306, 316, or 326 | 3 |

MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 | MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 |

ENGL 313 | 3 | Fine Arts (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Philosophy (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | HIST 200, 201, or POSC 225 | 3 |

15 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 30 |

**Mathematics, B.S. Statistics and Data Science**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 103 or 165 | 3 | BBST 103 or 165 | 3 |

CSCI 105 | 3 | CSCI 106 | 3 |

MATH 105 | 4 | MATH 106 | 4 |

ENGL 100 or 112 | 3 | MATH 204 | 3 |

GNST 102 | 1 | Foreign Language (see Core Curriculum) | 4 |

KNES 107 | 1 | ||

14 | 18 | ||

Total Credits 32 |

Second Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 209 or 210 | 3 | BBST 209 or 210 | 3 |

BBST 251 | 3 | MATH 315 or 305 | 3 |

MATH 205 | 4 | Communication (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

MATH 291 | 3 | Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

General Elective | 3 | General Elective | 3 |

16 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 31 |

Third Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 365 | 3 | BBST 354 | 3 |

MATH 318 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 331 | 3 | MATH 370 | 1 |

Behavioral Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | MATH 332 | 3 |

General Elective | 3 | Literature (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Writing Competency Requirement | KNES Activity (see Core Curriculum) | 1 | |

Graduation Petition due in Registrar's Office | |||

15 | 14 | ||

Total Credits 29 |

Fourth Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 300/400 Bible Elective | 3 | BBST 465 | 3 |

MATH 380 or 319 | 3 | BBST 306, 316, or 326 | 3 |

ENGL 313 | 3 | MATH 470 | 1 |

CSCI 402, 440, BUSN 423, or MATH 319 | 3 | Fine Arts (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Philosophy (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | HIST 200, 201, or POSC 225 | 3 |

15 | 13 | ||

Total Credits 28 |

**Mathematics, B.S. Secondary Instruction**

First Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 103 or 165 | 3 | BBST 103 or 165 | 3 |

CSCI 105 | 3 | MATH 106 | 4 |

MATH 105 | 4 | MATH 204 | 3 |

ENGL 100 or 112 | 3 | Foreign Language (see Core Curriculum) | 4 |

GNST 102 | 1 | KNES 107 | 1 |

14 | 15 | ||

Total Credits 29 |

Second Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 209 or 210 | 3 | BBST 209 or 210 | 3 |

BBST 251 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 205 | 4 | LEDU 330 | 3 |

MATH 291 | 3 | Communication (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

LEDU 301 | 3 | Science (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

KNES Activity (see Core Curriculum) | 1 | ||

16 | 16 | ||

Total Credits 32 |

Third Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 365 | 3 | BBST 354 | 3 |

MATH 331 or 341 | 3 | MATH 305 or 315 | 3 |

MATH 370 | 1 | MATH 318 or 332 | 3 |

MATH 415 | 3 | MATH 370 | 1 |

LEDU 341 | 3 | LEDU 425 | 3 |

PSYC 200 (required) | 3 | Literature (see Core Curriculum) | 3 |

Writing Competency Requirement | Graduation Petition due in Registrar's Office | ||

16 | 16 | ||

Total Credits 32 |

Fourth Year | |||
---|---|---|---|

Fall | Credits | Spring | Credits |

BBST 300/400 Bible Elective | 3 | BBST 465 | 3 |

MATH 331 or 341 | 3 | BBST 306, 316, or 326 | 3 |

MATH 415 (or MATH Elect - upper-division) | 3 | MATH Elective (upper-division) | 3 |

ENGL 313 | 3 | LEDU 433 | 2 |

Fine Arts (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | LEDU 438 | 3 |

Philosophy (see Core Curriculum) | 3 | HIST 200, 201, or POSC 225 | 3 |

LEDU 450 & LEDU 452 ^{1} | 0 | ||

18 | 17 | ||

Total Credits 35 |

^{1} | Students who wish to complete student teaching as an undergraduate must meet with an advisor. It is possible to complete LEDU 450/LEDU 452 prior to graduation if the Foreign Language requirement has already been met and coursework is taken during Summer sessions. Cross-listed as SEED 514/SEED 515 at the graduate level. |